Answer 3 Russian Hemp-seed

3. Russian strains to use and their prices:
Eight cultivars are currently cultivated in the central and southern parts of the Ukraine and Russia. They are used for the production of shipping cordage, ropes, core for steel cables, twines and technical fabrics. Hemp strains in the former USSR are classified into maturity groups or geographical types. Cultivars belong either to the southern, late maturing group, bred at the Agricultural Research Institute of Krasnodar or to a group of hybrid progenies from central and southern Hemp. Cultivars of the latter group are intended for cultivation at higher latitudes that to which they are ecologically adapted. They were generally bred at, and are commercialized by the former Federal Research Institute of fiber Plants, today called: Ukranian Institute of Bast Crops (see answer 4). At least two of the latter group of cultivars; ‘USO-11’ and ‘USO-13’, are also commercially available through the Krasnohirska Co. (see Hemp-seed Suppliers for address). 1995 price by Krasnohirska was US$2.00/kg = US$1.00/pound.

The dioecious southern type cultivar ‘Kuban’ was registered in 1984. It was obtained by ten cycles of family group selection in the hybrid progeny from (‘Szegedi 9’ x ‘Krasnodarskaya 56’). The breeding parent ‘Szegedi 9’ was selected in Hungary from the ‘Tiborszállási’ landrace. ‘Krasnodarskaya 56’ is probably a selected cross progeny from local Caucasian and Italian strains.

The dioecious southern cultivar ‘Zenica’ (synonym ‘Shenitsa’) was registered in 1990. The ancestry is not known at this time.

The monoecious southern cultivar ‘Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6’ is obtained by family group selection in the progeny form (‘Szegedi 9’ x ‘Fibrimon 56’). It was registered in 1980.

The remaining current cultivars have a southern phenological pattern but are cultivated at higher latitudes. They are all monoecious. Their names generally provide specifications with respect to ecotype (yuzhnaya = southern) and the monoecious character (odnodomnaya). Identical cultivar names, only differing in the added numbers, do not necessarily indicate common ancestry.

‘Zolotonoshskaya Yuzhnosozrevayushchaya Odnodomnaya 11’ (synonyms: ‘Zolotonoshskaya 11’) and Zolotonosha 11; abbreviated ‘USO-11’ or ‘YUSO-11’ was registered in 1984. The registration means that the THC content of this Hemp strain is certified to be smaller than 0.3% This Hemp-seed is eligible for a $400/acre/year subsidy from the EEC. Parental populations used for breeding this cultivar are ‘Dneprovskaya 4’, ‘YUSO-21’ and ‘Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6’. The dioecious parent ‘Dneprovskaya 4’ was selected from ‘Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskya’ which again was obtained from Italian Hemp. The ancestry of parent ‘YUSO-21’ is not known.

‘Zolotonoshskaya 13’ (synonym: ‘Zolotonosha 13’; abbreviated ‘USO-13’ or ‘YUSO-13’) was registered in 1986. It is a selected progeny from (‘YUSO-16’ x ‘Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6’). ‘USO-13’ is submitted for registration in Austria, probably by Saatbau Linz.

‘Yuzhnosozrevayushchaya Odnodomnaya 14’ (abbreviated: ‘YUSO-14’ or ‘JSO-14’) was registered in 1980. It is a further selection from ‘YUSO-1’, which again is a cross progeny from ‘JUS-6’ x ‘Odnodomnaya Bernburga’. The dioecious parent ‘JUS-6’ was selected from ‘Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya’ x ‘dwarf Northern Russian Hemp’. ‘Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya’ is originally selected from Italian Hemp. ‘Odnodomnaya Bernburga’ is a monoecious cultivar which was originally produced in Germany in the 1940s at the Akademie der Landwirtschaftwissenschaften in Bernburg under the name ‘Bernburger einhäusigen’.

‘YUSO-16’ or ‘JSO-16’ selected from the French cultivar ‘Fibrimon 56’, was registered in 1980.

‘YUSO-31’ or ‘JSO-31’ was registered in 1987. It was selected from the crossing ‘Glukhovskaja 10’ x ‘YUSO-1’. The parental population ‘Glukhovskaja 10’ is a selection from the central Ukranian ‘Novgorod-Seversk’ landrace. The ancestry of ‘YUSO-1’ is described above under ‘YUSO-14’.

Apart from the previous cultivars, the landrace ‘Ermakovskaya Mestnaya’ seems to be cultivated at a significant scale in Siberia. It belongs to the Central-Russian maturity group. It is not clear whether it really is a landrace in the strict sense that it is maintained only through mass-selection by local farmers, but its fiber content is indeed low.

Creative Hemp breeding is still continued in the Ukraine and Russia. For example the cultivar ‘Zolotonosha 15’ (‘USO-15’) was developed this year by family group selection among the cross-progeny from ‘USO-11’ x ‘USO-13’.

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*Industrial-Hemp has no psychoactive properties following definition of the European Economic Community (EEC); THC content is less than 0.3%. In general, low THC-seed varieties without psychoactive properties are those that have a THC content of less than 1%. (See also No-THC Hemp-seed.) THC= Delta-9 TetraHydroCannabinol.

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